MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
MIS relates itself as collection of facilities and processes in an organization that provides managers the information used by them. There are definitions of MIS given by different authors and scholars, some of them are listed below:-
- Henry C Lucas– A set of organised procedures which, when executed, provides information to support decision-making.
- Jayant K. Oke– An integrated system which transforms data (input) into reports (output) for facilitating decision-making through processing using various components of the information system i.e. hardware, software, database, procedures and personnel.
- T. Lucey– A system using formalised procedures to provide management at all levels in all functions with appropriate information, based on data from both internal and external sources, to enable them to make timely and effective decisions for planning, directing and controlling the activities for which they are responsible.
The systems concept can be used for designing and developing MIS in a better way, efficient and effective way as per the requirements for various organizations.
A system is defined as a collection of interrelated parts forming a synergistic whole that jointly serves the desired purpose. The parts which form the whole system are known as components (elements), which can be people, things or both.
The system receives inputs from various sources (from outside) and processes these inputs within the system. The product/results after the processes within the systems are given as output of the system.
A part of the output of the system can be further re-used as an input to prepare or get the feedback. The purpose of feedback is to determine how a system is performing and guide action on improvement of system performance. These actions intended to improve system performance are called control actions.
INFORMATION SYSTEM PROCESS
Any information has three basic components i.e. input, process and output.
Input is any information or data we want to store in a system for some type of purpose or use. Input must go through a process in order to obtain an output or else it has less value.
Processing is an internal act involving conversion of input to a required output for a specific task or purpose.
Output is the final result or outcome after processing of the input .Output is the required final objective for a certain purpose. Output is always dependent on the input and the kind of process it undergoes.
When we talk about MIS there needs to be a careful planning, not only the data processing but management information needs to be processed. It should provide support for management decision making and implementation too. It should adapt itself according to the changing needs of external business environment. The input data is first of all coded in a suitable form, the collected data depends upon the observation of a person and then expressing in a convenient form. The collected data must always be stored for future reference or use. These days data is mostly stored as a soft copy but for safety sake a hard copy too should be maintained. Processing of data involves data analysis. This converts data into relevant information, which is comprehensive for the reader. The use of various mathematical tools is done often in the form of tabulation sheet or graphical form ( bar graphs, histogram, pie-charts etc) in order to easily understand. Finally the report can be prepared and a presentation can be made even on PowerPoint or manually.
OBJECTIVES OF MIS
- Data Capturing– MIS captures data from various External and Internal sources. It can be manual or automated via computer.
- Data Processing– The processed data is converted into useful information and then used for analysis, classification, sorting, calculating and summarising.
- Storage and Retrieval of information– MIS stores raw data as well as processed data, which can be used for further reference.
- Dispersion – Dispersion or dissemination of final outcome/result of the processed information to the organization and people that require the relevant information.
- Helps to provide necessary information to managers and supervisors in order to perform the functions of management like planning, organising, directing, controlling.
- Decision making- Helps in making decisions in accordance with the policies and procedures of the organization.
- With rapid change in socio-economic, political and technology in the world, MIS helps to keep up the pace with the fast changes.
- Reports can be generated regarding men, machinery (tools), money, materials etc and the amount of utilization.
- Cost controlling measures can be effectively implemented through MIS as it helps in reporting idle time, surplus manpower, wastage etc.
- Controlling measures can be efficiently taken with the help of MIS as it helps to bring about the comparison of the actual performance with the set or required standard.