BY – Nisha Dharwal Lecturer MHA 1st Semester



Robert Katz identifies three types of skills that are essential for a successful
management process:

  • Technical
  • Conceptual and
  • Human or interpersonal management skills.


As the name of these skills tells us they give the manager’s knowledge and ability to use different techniques to achieve what they want to achieve. Technical skills are not related only for machines, production tools or other equipment, but also they are skills that will be required to increase sales , design different types of products and services , market the products and services.

For example, let’s take an individual who work in the sales department and have high developed sales skills obtained through education and experience in his department or the same department in different organization because of these skills that be possesses, this person can be a perfect solution to become sales manager . This is the best solution because he has great technical skills related to the sales department.

Technical skills are most important for the first level managers when it comes to the top managers, these skills are not something with high significance level. As we go through a hierarchy from the bottom to higher levels, the technical skills lose their importance.


Conceptual skills present knowledge or ability of a manager for more abstract thinking. That means he can easily see the whole through analysis and diagnosis of different states. In such a way they can predict the future of the business or department as a whole.


As a first, a company contain more business elements or functions as selling , marketing, finance , production. All these business elements have different goals even completely opposed goals. Thinks about marketing and production as a business function and their specific goals. You’ll see the essential difference. The conceptual skills will help managers to look outside their department’s goals. So they will make decisions that will satisfy overall business goals.

Conceptual skills are vital for top managers, less important for mid-level managers and not required for first – level managers.

As we go from a bottom of the management hierarchy to the top the importance of these skills will rise.


Human or interpersonal managerial skills present a manager’s knowledge and ability to work with people. One of the most important management tasks is to work with people without people, there will not be a need for existence of management and managers.

These skills will enable managers to become leaders and motivate employees for better accomplishment . Also , they will help them to make more effective use of human potential in the company. Simply , they are the most important skills for managers.


Interpersonal management skills are important for all hierarchical levels in the company.


Levels of management do not have a definite number. Its number is fixed according to the nature ,size,etc. of the business. Brech has divided levels of management into the following three categories:

1- Top Level Management
2- Middle Level Management
3- Lower Level or Supervisory Management


In top level management, Board of Directors, Chief Executive Officer, etc. are included . Chief Executive Officer can be a single person or a committee of officers. Chief Executive officer can be called by many names, like Managing Director, General Manager , Present,etc. Top Management has all the management authorities , and because of these authorities officers of these levels are accountable to owners or shareholders of the company.

Following functions are included in the list for Top Level Management.

1- Determining Objectives : Top level management sets objectives for the organization . For example , an objective can be set that in the following year the sales of the company has to cross Rs 1000 crore.

2- Determining Policies : Only at this level policies related to the realization of objectives are formed . For example, it can be a sales policy of a company to just make cash sales.

3- Determining Activities : Different activities to be performed for the fulfillment of an objective are fixed , such as sales , purchase, advertisement , production , research , etc.

4-Assembling Resources : Needed resources are assembled (arranged) for the realization of an objective, like capital , raw material, fixed assests,etc.

5- Controlling the Work Performance : The work in progress is closely monitored in a company to get desired result.


Middle level management lies between top level and lower level management. Under this, divisional heads, departmental heads, deputy departmental heads, plant superintendents and operations managers (Functional Managers) are included.

Following are the main function of Middle Level Managers:

1- Interpreting Policies : At this level , policies framed by top level managers are interpreted. Like the marketing manger introduces his salesman to the sales policy of the company that at no cost credit sales will be made.

2- Preparing Organisational set-up : Every middle level manager prepares outline of his respective department in accordance with the objectives of the organization.

3- Appointing Employees : Every departmental manager appoints employees to fulfill the activities of his department.

4- Issuing Instructions : Departmental managers direct their subordinates about what to do and how they have to do. Needful resources are made available to subordinates so that they can do the assigned jobs intermittently.

5- Motivating Employees: Middle level managers motivate their employees by various means so that they work most efficiently to achieve organizational objectives.

6- Creating Cooperation: Cooperation among different divisions is reuired to
successfully achieve company ‘s objectives and this done by middle level


It is also known as Supervisory Management . Under this, various foremen and supervisors are included . They are called First Line Managers.

Following are various functions of lower level managers:

1- Submitting Workers’ Grievances : Lower level managers are in direct contact with workmen employees . They themselves sort out the ordinary problems of workmen and submit serious workers grievances to middle level managers.

2- Ensuring Proper working Environment : Lower level managers ensure that proper arrangement of water , electricity , ventilation , cleanliness , etc. is made at the work place. This increases efficiency.

3- Ensuring Safety of Workers : Probability to accidents can be annulled by building fences around machines.

4- Helping Middle level Management : They help middle level managers in recruitment, training and promoting employees.

5- Inviting Suggestions : They invite suggestions from their subordinates , as to how the uality of work can by improved.

6- Creating better Human Relations: They create better human relations so that altercations can be avoided at the workplace.


Management is an all pervasive function since it is required in all types of
organized endeavor. Thus, its scope is very large.
The following activities are covered under the scope of management

1- Planning
2- Organization
3- Staffing
4- Directing
5- Co ordinating , and
6- Controlling

1- Planning : According to Koontz and O’ Danneel, Danneel,
“Planning is deciding in advance what to do , how to do it , when to do it and who is to do it”

2- Organization: According to Mc farland,
“An identifiable group of people contributing their efforts towards the attainment of goals is called organisation”

3- Staffing: According to Wehrich and Koontz,
“The managerial function of staffing involves the filling and keeping filled,
positions in the organizational structure”

4- Directing: Directing refers to instructing guiding communicating and inspiring people in the organization.

5- Coordinating: According to Koontz and O Danneel.
“Coordination is the essence of management for the achievement of harmony of individual efforts towards the accomplishment of group goals”

6- Controlling – Controlling refers to bring the actual results closer to the desired.


Personal Characteristics

  • Self Motivation
  • Integrity
  • Dependability
  • Optimism
  • Confidence
  • Flexibility

Business Characteristics

  • Industry Knowledge
  • Know when to delegate
  • Organization
  • Basic Money Management
  • Business Hiararchy
  • Legal implications

Communication Qualities

  • Written Communication
  • Public Speaking
  • Constructive feedback
  • Active listening
  • Specific
  • Organize your presentation