Maslow’s Theory of Hierarchy of Needs

Needs

  • Something that is necessary for an organism to live a healthy life
  • Deficiency would cause a clear negative outcome – deficiency or death
  • Can be Objective/Physical or Subjective
  • Objective needs –  food, shelter, sleep
  • Subjective needs – affection, acceptance, self-esteem

Ten Fundamental Human Needs

The needs – Meaning

Abraham Maslow

  • Professor of Psychology
  • Columbia University
  • Original thinker
  • Predecessors focused on the abnormal and the ill
  • Maslow focused on positive qualities of people

 

(April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970)

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs

  • Proposed in his paper – A Theory of Human Motivation, in 1943
  • Focuses on describing the stages of growth in humans
  • On study of exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, etc, rather than mentally crippled or mentally ill

The Hierarchal Model

Physiological Needs

Physiological Needs

  • Mostly, literal requirements for human survival
  • If not met, the human body cannot function
  • Metabolic needs – air, water, food, rest
  • Clothing, shelter – needed by even animals
  • Could be classified as basic animal needs

Safety Needs

 

Safety Needs

  • Once physical needs are met, safety needs take over
  • Personal including emotional
  • Health and well-being
  • Financial, job security
  • Safety of property against natural disasters, calamities, wars, etc
  • Law & order

Social Needs

Social Needs

  • Need to love and be loved
  • Need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance
  • Small groups – clubs, office teams, school/college houses
  • Large groups – political parties, Sports teams, facebook

Esteem Needs

Esteem Needs

  • Need to be respected by others and in turn respect them
  • Sense of contribution, to feel self-valued, in profession or hobby
  • Lower – respect of others, the need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention
  • Higher – self-respect, the need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence and freedom

Self Actualization Needs

Self Actualization Needs

  • What a man can be, he must be
  • Intrinsic growth of what is already in a person
  • Growth-motivated rather than deficiency-motivated
  • Cannot normally be reached until other lower order needs are met
  • Rarely happens – < 1%
  • Acceptance of facts, spontaneous, focused on problems outside self, without prejudice

Why do I need to know all this Psychobabble?

Maslow’s Theory in Practice in Management

Products are formed and placed to satisfy a category of needs in marketing as well as advertising

Maslow’s Theory in Marketing/Advertising

  • PN – wife/child-abuse help-lines, social security benefits, Samaritans, roadside recovery.
  • SN– home security products, insurance, life assurance, schools.
  • Esteem Needs– cosmetics, fast cars, home improvements, furniture, fashion clothes, drinks, lifestyle products and services.