BY – Rohit Singh MHA2017-19



Leadership is the ability to develop a vision that motivates others to move with a passion toward a common goal. So leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent.

Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to “lead” or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.

Concept of leadership

Good leaders are made, not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience (Jago, 1982). This guide will help you through the journey.

To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not often come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their past laurels.

Leadership Characteristics/functions

According to the functional leadership model, the primary task of the leader is to ensure that all requirements of the group are met so that goals can be achieved.

The functional style places more importance on behaviors that get things done rather than assigning a formal leadership role.

The following are the characteristics of a functional leadership style.

  1. Priority on needs

The basic notion of functional leadership is that any group will have three primary needs

  • The needs of the task
  • The needs of the team
  • The needs of individuals who make up the team

These three needs are the basic building blocks that form functional leadership. When these needs are met, goals are achieved and the organization progresses.

  1. Focus on actions

The functional leadership theory has been developed after studying the behaviors of successful leaders, and identifying the particular actions that led to successful results. Here, the focus is more on what the leader does than on who the leader is.

  1. Result oriented

In functional leadership, what matters is whether things get done. The leadership role is fluid and the primary emphasis is on ensuring behaviors that achieve a particular result. It isn’t much use getting applauded on a great leadership style if nobody does anything.

  1. Motivation

The functional leader must ensure that every individual in the group feels sufficiently appreciated for their efforts and actions. In the absence of motivation or clear communication about how their actions contribute to the group’s success, there’s a high chance that members might get dejected and leave the group.

  1. Controlling

Functional leadership involves a great deal of controlling exactly what happens in the team. Resources are usually limited in any situation, and the leader must control what happens by being efficient about getting the maximum results from the available resources.

  1. Setting an example

People tend to observe their leaders and emulate their behaviors. Functional leaders set an example by doing the things that they want their followers to do.

  1. Guidance

Team members want to know how they are doing, and whether they need to change anything. They need feedback about their jobs and how they can improve. One of the important tasks of a functional leader is to provide appropriate guidance to all members.

The functional style assumes that leadership is defined by the behavior of the leader and its corresponding effect on the group. Leadership is something that any individual provides to a group to meet certain needs.

Leadership Style

leadership style is a leader’s style of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Various authors have proposed identifying many different leadership styles as exhibited by leaders in the political, business or other fields. Studies on leadership style are conducted in the military field, expressing an approach that stresses a holistic view of leadership, including how a leader’s physical presence determines how others perceive that leader. The factors of physical presence in this context include military bearing, physical fitness, confidence, and resilience. The leader’s intellectual capacity helps to conceptualize solutions and to acquire knowledge to do the job. A leader’s conceptual abilities apply agility, judgment, innovation, interpersonal tact, and domain knowledge.


Transactional leadership, also known as managerial leadership, focuses on supervision, organization, and performance; transactional leadership is a style of leadership in which leaders promote compliance by followers through both rewards and punishments. Unlike transformational leaders, those using the transactional approach are not looking to change the future; they look to keep things the same. Leaders using transactional leadership as a model pay attention to followers’ work in order to find faults and deviations.

This type of leadership is effective in crisis and emergency situations, as well as for projects that need to be carried out in a specific way.

Transactional leaders focus their leadership on motivating followers through a system of rewards and punishments. There are two factors which form the basis for this system, Contingent Reward and management-by-exception.

  • Contingent reward provides rewards, materialistic or psychological, for effort and recognizes good performance.
  • Management-by-exception allows the leader to maintain the status quo. The leader intervenes when subordinates do not meet acceptable performance levels and initiates corrective action to improve performance. Management by exception helps reduce the workload of managers being that they are only called-in when workers deviate from course.

This type of leader identifies the needs of their followers and gives rewards to satisfy those needs in exchange of certain level of performance.

Transactional leaders focus on increasing the efficiency of established routines and procedures. They are more concerned with following existing rules than with making changes to the organization.

A transactional leader establishes and standardizes practices that will help the organization reach:

  • Maturity
  • Goal-setting
  • Efficiency of operation.

Effect on work teams

Survey done by Jun Liu, Xiaoyu Liu and Xianju Zeng on the correlation of transactional leadership and how innovations can be affected by team emotions. The research was composed of 90 work teams, with a total of 460 members and 90 team leaders. The study found that there is a relationship between emotions, labor behavior and transactional leadership that affect for the team. Depending on the level of emotions of the team; this can affect the transactional leader in a positive or negative way. Transactional leaders work better in teams where there is a lower level of emotions going into the project. This is because individuals are able to

  • Think freely when setting their emotions aside from their work.
  • Have all of their focus on the given task.

A transactional leader is:

  1. Negatively affected when the emotional level is high.
  2. Positively affected when the emotional level is low.

Transactional leadership presents a form of strategic leadership that is important for the organizations development. Transactional leadership is essential for team innovativeness.

Leadership Theories

There are many theories given by many scientist by their studies  certain are follows.

  • Great man theory(1840’s)
  • Trait theory(1930’s-1940’s)
  • Behavioral theory(1940’s-1950’s)
  • Contingency theories(1960’s)
  • Transactional leadership theories(1970’s)
  • Transformational leadership theories(1970’s)

Great man theory (1840’s)

The Great Man theory evolved around the mid 19th century. Even though no one was able to identify with any scientific certainty, which human characteristic or combination of, were responsible for identifying great leaders. Everyone recognized that just as the name suggests; only a man could have the characteristics of a great leader. The Great Man theory assumes that the traits of leadership are intrinsic. That simply means that great leaders are born. they are not made. This theory sees great leaders as those who are destined by birth to become a leader

Trait theory (1930’s-1940’s)

The trait leadership theory believes that people are either born or are made with certain qualities that will make them excel in leadership roles. That is, certain qualities such as intelligence, sense of responsibility, creativity and other values puts anyone in the shoes of a good leader.

Behavioral theories (1940’s-1950’s)

In reaction to the trait leadership theory, the behavioral theories are offering a new perspective, one that focuses on the behaviors of the leaders as opposed to their mental, physical or social characteristics. Thus, with the evolutions in psychometrics, notably the factor analysis, researchers were able to measure the cause an effects relationship of specific human behaviors from leaders. From this point forward anyone with the right conditioning could have access to the once before elite club of naturally gifted leaders.

Contingency theories (1960’s)

The Contingency Leadership theory argues that there is no single way of leading and that every leadership style should be based on certain situations, which signifies that there are certain people who perform at the maximum level in certain places; but at minimal performance when taken out of their element.

Transactional theories (1970’s)

Transactional theories, also known as exchange theories of leadership, are characterized by a transaction made between the leader and the followers. In fact, the theory values a positive and mutually beneficial relationship.

For the transactional theories to be effective and as a result have motivational value, the leader must find a means to align to adequately reward (or punish) his follower, for performing leader-assigned task. In other words, transactional leaders are most efficient when they develop a mutual reinforcing environment, for which the individual and the organizational goals are in sync.

The transactional theorists state that humans in general are seeking to maximize pleasurable experiences and to diminish un-pleasurable experiences. Thus, we are more likely to associate ourselves with individuals that add to our strengths.

Associated theories

  • Leader-member Exchange (LMX)

Transformational leadership theories (1970’s)

The Transformational Leadership theory states that this process is by which a person interacts with others and is able to create a solid relationship that results in a high percentage of trust, that will later result in an increase of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, in both leaders and followers.

The essence of transformational theories is that leaders transform their followers through their inspirational nature and charismatic personalities. Rules and regulations are flexible, guided by group norms. These attributes provide a sense of belonging for the followers as they can easily identify with the leader and its purpose.

Associated theories

  • Burns Transformational Leadership Theory
  • Bass Transformational Leadership Theory
  • Kouzes and Posner’s Leadership Participation Inventory


  • A leader may be of various types but a true and competent leader is one that encompasses all the aforesaid qualities
  • It is essential for a great leader to be dynamic and constantly evolving so that he/she may lead the team in the most apt and beneficial manner.
  • Having a wide knowledge and diverse background will not only help make well informed decisions but also increase the level of compassion.
  • The perfect leader is one which has a blend of all the characteristics and can call upon his attributes to meet the necessary situation at hand..