I   want to clarify that this is not just a formal acknowledgement but also a sincere note of thanks and regard from my side I feel a deep sense of gratitude and affection for those who were assigned with the project and without whose cooperation and guidance this research could not have been conducted properly.

  1. I would especially like to thank Mr. MANDEEP NARANG  faculty of our  for  taking been interest in the completion of my report.

Last but not least dedicate this effort of mine to those persons who are light of my life: My father, Mother , friends who have been behind every successful endeavor in my life.


Chapter1-    Introduction of   Management

Chapter2-     Management   System

Chapter 3-    Classification   of   Systems

  1. a) Open System
  2. b) Close system

Chapter 4-    Systems   Approach to Management

Chapter5- Elements of  Systems  approach

Chapter6- Advantages of systems  approach in management

Chapter7-disadvantages of systems approach in management

Chapter 8- Bibliograph



“   Management   is   a   process   of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups efficiently accomplish selected aims”. 


“   Management is a process of getting the things done through and with people to accomplish the objectives in effective and efficient ways”.

Traditionally, the term “management refers to the activities (and often the group of people) involved in the four general functions: planning, organizing, leading and coordinating of resources. Note that the   four functions recur throughout the organization     and are highly integrated. Emerging trends in management include assertions that leading is different than managing, and that the nature of how the four functions are carried out must change to accommodate a “new paradigm” in management.

  1. Planning including identifying  goals   ,   objectives   , methods, resources needed to carry out methods, responsibilities and dates for completion f tasks. Examples of planning are strategic   planning   , business   planning    , project   planning ,  staffing  planning , advertising and promotions planning , etc.
  2. Organizing resources to achieve the goals in an optimum fashion, Examples are organizing new departments, human resources, office and   file systems   , re-organizing   businesses , etc.
  3. Leading including setting direction for the   organizing  ,groups and individuals and   also   influencing people to follow that direction. Examples are establishing strategic direction (vision , mission, values and / or  goals) and championing methods of organizational performance management  to pursue that direction.
  4. Controlling or coordinating   the organization’s system, processes and structures to reach effectively and efficiently goals and objectives. This includes ongoing   collection   of      feedback   , and monitoring and adjustment of   systems   , processes and structures accordingly. Examples include use of financing    control , policies   and    procedures   ,performance management   processes , measures     to avoid risks etc.

Management   means “the art of conducting , directing ”.from  Latin manager “to lead by the hand” characterizes the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human ,financial, material, intellectual or intangible).In early twentieth-century management writers defined management as “the art of getting things done through people.”One can   also   think   of   management   functionally   , as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan, and as the actions taken to reach one’s   intended   goal   .  Situational management .


“A management system is the framework of policies, processes and procedures used by an organization   to ensure that it can fulfill all the tasks   required   to   achieve its objectives.”These objectives will be a mix covering many aspects of the organization’s operations (including financial successes,   safe   operation   ,   product    quality   , client relationships, legislative and regulatory conformance,   worker    management   ,       etc.   )  For instance, an environmental management system enables organizations to improve their environmental performance and an occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) enables an organization to control its occupational health  and safety risks, etc.

Many parts of the management system will be common to a range of    objectives   , but others may be specific to an individual objective.  However   ,   many   organizations will require their management system to support a range of many different (and potentially    conflicting   ) objectives.

A simplification of the main aspects of a management system is the 4- element “Plan, Do, Check   , Act”    approach   . A complete management system can include up to 20 ‘elements’, covering every aspect of   the management system and focused on supporting the performance of the management system to achieve the objectives .The  management system should be able to improve its own performance by means of continuous improvement.

The management system elements may include:

  1. Workforce involvement.
  2. Communication with Stakeholders (others peripherally impacted by operations)
  3. Documentation ,records & knowledge management
  4. Identification & Assessment of potential failures & other hazards.
  5. Documented procedures.
  6. Employee selection, placement & competency assurance.
  7. Identification &compliance with legislation & industry standards.
  8. Leadership Involvement & Responsibility.
  9. Project Monitoring   , Status & Handover.
  10. Management of Interfaces.
  11. Standards & Practices
  12. Management of change & Project Management.
  13. Operational Readiness & Start- up.
  14. Emergency Preparedness.
  15. Inspection & Maintenance of facilities.
  16. Management of Critical systems.
  17. Work Control, Permit to work & Task Risk Management.
  18. Contractor/Vendor Selection & Management.
  19. Incident Reporting & Investigation
  20. Audit, Assurance and Management System Review & Intervention.


OPEN SYSTEM:-  An open system is a system that has external interactions. Such interactions can take the form of information, energy, or material transfers into or out of   the   system   boundary   , depending on the discipline   which   defines   the    concept   . An open system is contrasted with the concept of an isolated system which exchanges neither energy, matter, nor information with its environment .An open system is also known as a constant volume system or a flow system.

In the natural sciences an open system is open whose border is permeable to both energy and   mass   .  In Thermodynamics    a    closed   system   , by    contrast   , is   permeable   to   energy   but   not   to   matter.   For   examples   :-   WORDPRESS   and UNIX; to a lesser  extent   FACEBOOK .

CLOSE SYSTEM:- A close system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass) in or out of the system .The specification of what types of transfers are excluded varies in the closed systems of physics ,chemistry or engineering. Closed systems are often used to limit the factors that can affect the results of specific problem or experiment.    For example:- An automatic wrist watch.


  • It is a collection of interrelated parts acting together to achieve some goal which exists in the   Also, system is defined as a set of objects working together with the objects and their attributes related to each   other and to the environment.
  • System in simple   terms   in   respect   to    management   , it is a set of different independent parts working together in interrelated manner to accomplish a set of objectives.


  • The parts of a system are called sub-systems. Each sub-system influences the other sub-systems and the system as a whole.
  • An organization is a unified and purposeful system consisting of several   interconnected   , interacting and interdependent parts.
  • The reaction or response of the environment to the output is known as feedback. Feedback is useful in evaluation and improving the functioning of the system.

Organizations   operate on the principle that they have several alternative ways of doing the same thing or achieving the same goal.


  1. It provides a good basis of control.
  2. It develops coordination of the specialized activities.

It frees management from many daily details of operations management.


  • System approach is complex system.
  • Systems philosophy does not specify the nature of interactions and interdependencies.
  • Systems approach is lack of universality.
  • Over-conceptual.


1-Prof.S.A Tabish( book name “Hospitality administration”)

2-  “Health care administration” Retrieved 11 September 2012