MANAGEMENT AS SYSTEM
BY NEELAM NEGI
I want to clarify that this is not just a formal acknowledgement but also a sincere note of thanks and regard from my side I feel a deep sense of gratitude and affection for those who were assigned with the project and without whose cooperation and guidance this research could not have been conducted properly.
- I would especially like to thank Mr. MANDEEP NARANG faculty of our for taking been interest in the completion of my report.
Last but not least dedicate this effort of mine to those persons who are light of my life: My father, Mother , friends who have been behind every successful endeavor in my life.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter1- Introduction of Management
Chapter2- Management System
Chapter 3- Classification of Systems
- a) Open System
- b) Close system
Chapter 4- Systems Approach to Management
Chapter5- Elements of Systems approach
Chapter6- Advantages of systems approach in management
Chapter7-disadvantages of systems approach in management
Chapter 8- Bibliograph
INTRODUCTION OF MANGEMENT
“ Management is a process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups efficiently accomplish selected aims”.
“ Management is a process of getting the things done through and with people to accomplish the objectives in effective and efficient ways”.
Traditionally, the term “management refers to the activities (and often the group of people) involved in the four general functions: planning, organizing, leading and coordinating of resources. Note that the four functions recur throughout the organization and are highly integrated. Emerging trends in management include assertions that leading is different than managing, and that the nature of how the four functions are carried out must change to accommodate a “new paradigm” in management.
- Planning including identifying goals , objectives , methods, resources needed to carry out methods, responsibilities and dates for completion f tasks. Examples of planning are strategic planning , business planning , project planning , staffing planning , advertising and promotions planning , etc.
- Organizing resources to achieve the goals in an optimum fashion, Examples are organizing new departments, human resources, office and file systems , re-organizing businesses , etc.
- Leading including setting direction for the organizing ,groups and individuals and also influencing people to follow that direction. Examples are establishing strategic direction (vision , mission, values and / or goals) and championing methods of organizational performance management to pursue that direction.
- Controlling or coordinating the organization’s system, processes and structures to reach effectively and efficiently goals and objectives. This includes ongoing collection of feedback , and monitoring and adjustment of systems , processes and structures accordingly. Examples include use of financing control , policies and procedures ,performance management processes , measures to avoid risks etc.
Management means “the art of conducting , directing ”.from Latin manager “to lead by the hand” characterizes the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human ,financial, material, intellectual or intangible).In early twentieth-century management writers defined management as “the art of getting things done through people.”One can also think of management functionally , as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan, and as the actions taken to reach one’s intended goal . Situational management .
“A management system is the framework of policies, processes and procedures used by an organization to ensure that it can fulfill all the tasks required to achieve its objectives.”These objectives will be a mix covering many aspects of the organization’s operations (including financial successes, safe operation , product quality , client relationships, legislative and regulatory conformance, worker management , etc. ) For instance, an environmental management system enables organizations to improve their environmental performance and an occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) enables an organization to control its occupational health and safety risks, etc.
Many parts of the management system will be common to a range of objectives , but others may be specific to an individual objective. However , many organizations will require their management system to support a range of many different (and potentially conflicting ) objectives.
A simplification of the main aspects of a management system is the 4- element “Plan, Do, Check , Act” approach . A complete management system can include up to 20 ‘elements’, covering every aspect of the management system and focused on supporting the performance of the management system to achieve the objectives .The management system should be able to improve its own performance by means of continuous improvement.
The management system elements may include:
- Workforce involvement.
- Communication with Stakeholders (others peripherally impacted by operations)
- Documentation ,records & knowledge management
- Identification & Assessment of potential failures & other hazards.
- Documented procedures.
- Employee selection, placement & competency assurance.
- Identification &compliance with legislation & industry standards.
- Leadership Involvement & Responsibility.
- Project Monitoring , Status & Handover.
- Management of Interfaces.
- Standards & Practices
- Management of change & Project Management.
- Operational Readiness & Start- up.
- Emergency Preparedness.
- Inspection & Maintenance of facilities.
- Management of Critical systems.
- Work Control, Permit to work & Task Risk Management.
- Contractor/Vendor Selection & Management.
- Incident Reporting & Investigation
- Audit, Assurance and Management System Review & Intervention.
CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS
OPEN SYSTEM:- An open system is a system that has external interactions. Such interactions can take the form of information, energy, or material transfers into or out of the system boundary , depending on the discipline which defines the concept . An open system is contrasted with the concept of an isolated system which exchanges neither energy, matter, nor information with its environment .An open system is also known as a constant volume system or a flow system.
In the natural sciences an open system is open whose border is permeable to both energy and mass . In Thermodynamics a closed system , by contrast , is permeable to energy but not to matter. For examples :- WORDPRESS and UNIX; to a lesser extent FACEBOOK .
CLOSE SYSTEM:- A close system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass) in or out of the system .The specification of what types of transfers are excluded varies in the closed systems of physics ,chemistry or engineering. Closed systems are often used to limit the factors that can affect the results of specific problem or experiment. For example:- An automatic wrist watch.
SYSTEMS APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT
- It is a collection of interrelated parts acting together to achieve some goal which exists in the Also, system is defined as a set of objects working together with the objects and their attributes related to each other and to the environment.
- System in simple terms in respect to management , it is a set of different independent parts working together in interrelated manner to accomplish a set of objectives.
ELEMENTS OF SYSTEMS APPROACH
- The parts of a system are called sub-systems. Each sub-system influences the other sub-systems and the system as a whole.
- An organization is a unified and purposeful system consisting of several interconnected , interacting and interdependent parts.
- The reaction or response of the environment to the output is known as feedback. Feedback is useful in evaluation and improving the functioning of the system.
Organizations operate on the principle that they have several alternative ways of doing the same thing or achieving the same goal.
ADVANTAGES OF SYSTEMS APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT
- It provides a good basis of control.
- It develops coordination of the specialized activities.
It frees management from many daily details of operations management.
DISADVANTAGES OF SYSTEMS APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT
- System approach is complex system.
- Systems philosophy does not specify the nature of interactions and interdependencies.
- Systems approach is lack of universality.
1-Prof.S.A Tabish( book name “Hospitality administration”)
2- “Health care administration” Retrieved 11 September 2012