PLANNING, IMPLEMENTATION AND CONTROLLING OF MIS
BY SUHANI SHARMA
It would be my utmost pleasure to express my sincere thanks to Mr Mandeep Narang in providing a helping hand in this project.
His valuable guidance, support and supervision all through this project are responsible for attaining its present form.
Mr Mandeep Narang
- COMPONENTS OF MIS
- PLANNING OF MIS
- PLANNING LEVELS
- STAGES IN PLANNING OF MIS
- PLANNING PROCESS
- WHY PLANNING IS IMPORTANT
- CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROLLING
- PROCESS OF CONTROLLING
- TYPE OF CONTROLLING
- CLASSIFICATION OF CONTROLLING
Management information system:
A management information system (MIS) focuses on the management of information technology to provide efficiency and effectiveness or strategy decision making. The concept may include systems termed transaction processing system, decision support system, expert system, or executive information system. The term is often used in the academic study of businesses and has connections with other areas, such as information systems, information technology, informatics, e-commerce and computer science; as a result, the term is used interchangeably with some of these areas.
Management information systems as an academic discipline studies people, technology, organizations, and the relationships among them. This definition relates specifically to “MIS” as a course of study in business schools. Many business schools (or colleges of business administration within universities) have an MIS department, alongside departments of accounting, finance, management, marketing, and may award degrees (at undergraduate, master, and doctoral levels) in Management Information Systems.
MIS professionals help organizations to maximize the benefit from investments in personnel, equipment, and business processes.
Management information system, or MIS, broadly refers to a computer-based system that provides managers with the tools to organize, evaluate and efficiently manage departments within an organization. In order to provide past, present and prediction information, a management information system can include software that helps in decision making, data resources such as databases, the hardware resources of a system, decision support systems, people management and project management applications, and any computerized processes that enable the department to run efficiently.
MIS is the use of information technology, people, and business processes to record, store and process data to produce information that decision makers can use to make day to day decisions.
MIS is the acronym for Management Information Systems. In a nutshell, MIS is a collection of systems, hardware, procedures and people that all work together to process, store, and produce information that is useful to the organization.
The following are some of the justifications for having an MIS system
- Decision makers need information to make effective decisions. Management Information Systems (MIS) make this possible.
- MIS systems facilitate communication within and outside the organization – employees within the organization are able to easily access the required information for the day to day operations. Facilitates such as Short Message Service (SMS) & Email make it possible to communicate with customers and suppliers from within the MIS system that an organization is using.
- Record keeping – management information systems record all business transactions of an organization and provide a reference point for the transactions.
Components of MIS :
The major components of a typical management information system are;
- People – people who use the information system
- Data – the data that the information system records
- Business Procedures – procedures put in place on how to record, store and analyze data
- Hardware – these include servers, workstations, networking equipment, printers, etc.
- Software – these are programs used to handle the data. These include programs such as spreadsheet programs, database software, etc.
PLANNING OF MIS:
Planning is the process used by mangers to identify and select goals and courses of action for the organization. The organizational plan that results from the planning process details the goal to be attained. The pattern of decision managers take to reach these goals in organization’s strategy. Planning is the first step in building MIS in an organization.
- Corporate Level:
- Decisions by top managers.
- Considers on what businesses or markets to be in.
- Provides a frame work for all other planning
- Business Level:
- Detail divisional long term goals and structure.
- Identifies how this business meets corporate goals.
- Shows how business will compete in the market.
- Functional Level:
- Actions taken by managers in department of manufacturing, marketing etc.
- These plans state exactly how business level strategies are accomplished.
STAGES IN PLANNING OF MIS
- Strategic planning
- Developing overall organizational plans for adjusting MIS strategic plan.
- Organizational information resource analysis(OIRA)
- Analyzing current and projected information needs to support decision making.
- Resource allocation
- Developing h/w & s/w data communication plan and financial plan.
- Project planning
- Preparing, completion, cost, requirement, difficulty, time estimates.
WHY PLANNING IS IMPORTANT?
Planning determines where the organization is now and where will it be in the future. Good planning provides:
All managers are involved in setting future goals
- Sense of direction & purpose:
Planning sets goals and strategies for all members
Plans provide all parts of the firm with understanding about how their system fit with the whole.
Plans specify who is incharge of accomplishing a goal.
IMPLEMENTATION OF MIS:
- The implementation of new information system is a significant investment of organization. Since information system are socio technical system, development involves the joint design of activity system and ICT system.
- This information system implementation process concept is similar to a five step process called the information systems development cycle which includes the steps of
- Implementation, and
- The implementation of the MIS brings about organizational and behavioural changes. It affects people and change their work style.
- In the process of implementation, the system designer acts as a change agent or a catalyst. For a successful implementation he has to handle the human factors carefully.
- The user of the system has a certain fear complex when a certain cultural work change is occurring. The first and foremost fear is about the security of the person if the change over from the old to new is not a smooth one.
- There are certain guidelines for the system designer for successful implementation of the system. The system designer should:
- Not question beyond a limit the information needed to the user.
- Not forget that his role is to offer a service and not to demand terms.
- Remember that the system design is for the use of the user and it is not for the designer’s prerogative to dictate the design feature.
- Not mix up technical needs with informative needs.
- Impress upon the user the global nature of the system design which is required to meet the current and prospective information needs.
- Ensure that the user makes commitment to all the requirement of the system design specification.
- Ensure that the overall system efforts has the management’s acceptance.
- Conduct a periodical user meeting on system where you get the opportunity to know the ongoing difficulties of the user.
The process of analysing current performance and comparing them against predefined standards contained in the plan and taking appropriate corrective actions against the identified deviation in the result.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROLLING:
- Continuous process
- Function of management
- Important for each level of management
- It is backward looking
- Linked with planning
- Control is an action
PROCESS OF CONTROLLING:
TYPES OF CONTROLLING:
CLASSIFICATION OF CONTROL:
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