MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS)
BY MAMATA KULYAL
A management information system (MIS) refers to the processing of information through computers to manage and support managerial decisions within an organization.
The term is often used in the academic study of businesses and has connections with other areas, such as information systems, information technology, informatics, e-commerce and computer science; as a result, the term is used interchangeably with some of these areas.
Management information systems as an academic discipline studies people, technology, organizations, and the relationships among them.
Management Information System (MIS) an academic study where topics as: information, computers and business are the main objective. In this subject can be learned how to manage a company in the new technology world.
MIS professionals help organizations to maximize the benefit from investments in personnel, equipment, and business processes.
System– A collection of components that work together to achieve a common objective.
Information System– A system that provides information support to the decision-making process at each level of an organization.
Health Information System– A system that integrates data collection, processing, reporting, and use of the information necessary for improving health service effectiveness and efficiency through better management at all levels of health services.
Health Management Information System– An information system specially designed to assist in the management and planning of health programmes, as opposed to delivery of care.
HEALTHCARE INFORMATION SYSTEM
Healthcare is a business and, like every business, it needs good management to keep the business running smoothly
Healthcare information systems means meticulously maintaining a patient’s healthcare records and ensuring that confidential information is securely kept.
They are responsible for maintaining, updating, and securing all of a patient’s healthcare information.
Those in healthcare information systems must have tremendous attention to detail.
They are responsible for maintaining, updating, and securing all of a patient’s healthcare information.
Healthcare service providers who use HIM Hospitals Outpatient care centers Physicians
and surgeons other ambulatory health care service Medical and diagnostic laboratories
Dentists and dental clinics Home health care services Other health practitioners Nursing
and residential care facilities.
PROCESS OF HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS
- Analysis of Interpretation
- Preparation for Utilization
- Presentation of information
HEALTH INFORMATION PROFFESIONALS
Health information management professionals plan information systems, develop health policy, and identify current and future information needs.
They apply the science of informatics to the collection, storage, use, and transmission of information to meet the legal, professional, ethical and administrative records-keeping requirements of health care delivery.
Health information managers, Medical records and health information technicians Health Information Administrator, Implementation managers, Trainers.
ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORD SYSTEM Clinicians rely on complete and accurate data in order to make decisions about patient care. Without a solid system for health information exchange in place between facilities, it is impossible to ensure that a clinician has the entire clinical picture. Without complete historical information on a patient, treatment plans are often asked, which can mean suboptimal, sometimes even lethal, outcomes.
HIGHLIGHTS OF HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM:
- Patient-centered approach
- User-friendly, easy-to-use & web-enabled applications
- Multi-level distributed hospital information system
- Integration, Patient identification, Single log-in
- Use of controlled vocabularies for coding
- Data consistency
RECORDS IN HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT:
Healthcare quality and safety require that the right information be available at the right time to support patient care and health system management decisions. Health records are archival records or diaries of diagnostic discoveries. Clinical data include facts about
- Patient or client’s overall health status and ability to perform normal bodily functions
- Person’s overall physical, physiological, psychological, sociological and intellectual characteristics
- Performance of interest to patients and health professionals.
- Health records contain time and source-oriented collections of text-based (alphanumeric) information, physiological tracings (from analogue signals), and images and sounds (multimedia).
MANAGEMENT OF MIS
There are different areas of concentration with different duties and responsibilities in information system managers starting from the Chief information officer (CIOs), Chief technology officer (CTOs), IT directors and IT security managers.
Chief information officers (CIOs) are responsible for the overall technology strategy of their organizations. Basically, they are more of the decision makers and action takers when it comes down to determining the technology or information goals of an organization and making sure the necessary planning to implement those goals is being met.
Chief technology officers (CTOs) are responsible for evaluating how new technology can help their organization. They usually recommend technological solutions to support the policies issued by the CIO.
IT directors including MIS directors are in charge of both their organization’s Information technology departments and the supervision of thereof. They are also in charge of implementing the policies chosen by the other top branches (CIOs, CTOs). It is their role to ensure the availability of data and network services by coordinating IT activities.
IT Security Managers oversee the network and security data as the title implies. They develop programs to offer information and awareness to their employees about security threats. This team is very important because they must keep up-to-date on IT security measures in order to be successful within their organization. Any security violations need to be investigated and supervised by this specific team.
TYPES AND TERMINOLOGY
The terms management information system (MIS), information system, enterprise resource planning (ERP), and information technology management (IT) are often confused. Information systems and MIS are broader categories that include ERP. Information technology management concerns the operation and company of information technology resources independent of their purpose.
- Management information systems, produce fixed, regularly scheduled reports based on data extracted and summarized from the firm’s underlying transaction processing systems]to middle and operational level managers to identify and inform semi-structured decision problems.
- Decision support systems(DSS) are computer program applications used by middle and higher management to compile information from a wide range of sources to support problem solving and decision making. A DSS is used mostly for semi-structured and unstructured decision problems.
- Executive information systems(EIS) is a reporting tool that provides quick access to summarized reports coming from all company levels and departments such as accounting, human resources and operations.
- Marketing Information Systemsare Management Information Systems designed specifically for managing the marketing aspects of the business
- Accounting information systemsare focused accounting
- Human resource management systemsare used for personnel aspects.
- Office automation systems(OAS) support communication and productivity in the enterprise by automating workflow and eliminating bottlenecks. OAS may be implemented at any and all levels of management.
- School Information Management Systems(SIMS) cover school administration, and often including teaching and learning materials.
- Enterprise resource planningfacilitates the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders.
ADVANTAGES OF MIS:
The following are some of the benefits that can be attained using MIS:
- Companies are able to identify their strengths and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports, employees’ performance record etc. Identifying these aspects can help a company improve its business processes and operations.
- Giving an overall picture of the company.
- Acting as a communication and planning tool.
- The availability of customer data and feedback can help the company to align its business processesaccording to the needs of its customers. The effective management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activities.
- MIS can help a company gain a competitive advantage. Competitive advantage is a firm’s ability to do something better, faster, cheaper, or uniquely, when compared with rival firms in the market.
- MIS report help to take decision and action on certain object with quick time.
DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORD SYSTEM
- Enormous start up costs: Starting the Information system for the first time may incur huge amount of expenses for arranging the equipments, training manpower and maintainnance cost etc.
- Nurses and doctors are unfamiliar with technology: As the new system comes into place nurses and doctors are not well aware of the system and its function. They will require a well trained professional to make them familiar with the system.
- Hackers may ultimately be able to penetrate system despite security precautions System is attacked by computer viruses: Systems running online are always prone to the hackers and viruses with may hamper the correct functioning of the systems.
- Power failure: Power failure during the functioning of the systems will effect its reliability and functioning correctly.
IMPORTANCE OF THE HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
It is the system in which the various information is used for management of hospital functions as under:
- Collection, compilation, analysis and interpretation of data for effective use as information.
- Helps in better planning, monitoring and control of medical and health services.
- Monitoring of identified indicators helps in improving of the efficiency and performance of health delivery systems.
- Hospital safety
- Analysis of information helps in better decision making.
- Various information collected for information management of hospital are:
- Morbidity Rates
- Mortality Rates
- Level of staff training and efficiency.
- Level of functioning of various areas of hospitals like labs, X-ray, Blood Bank, CSSD, Sanitation etc.
- Admission, Discharge and Death.
- ALS, Bed occupancy, Bed turnover rates.